Call Center Staffing Hints, Tips & Best Practices
Staffing is the most expensive resource in the call center budget, so
any improvement in productivity can have a significant impact.
What if there was a way to cut your staffing costs by as much as 20%,
while also reducing the amount of time you now devote to forecasting and
It’s possible – just by switching from spreadsheets to a Workforce Management solution.
Spreadsheets were a great idea for call center staffing, forecasting and
scheduling – last century. Today, there are faster, easier ways to
handle these vital functions that are also more accurate, more
agent-friendly, and more economical for call centers of all sizes.
With a WFM solution such as Monet WFM Live, managers have the
flexibility to adjust to unexpected events, manage exceptions more
efficiently, and reduce shrinkage by as much as 15 minutes per agent per
WFM Live offers a number of additional benefits as well, including:
• Easier skill-based scheduling
• Real-time adherence monitoring and analysis
• Less time required for scheduling
• Improved service levels
Isn’t it Time For a Better Solution?
Monet WFM Live represents a quantum leap forward from spreadsheets, at a
cost within reach of any size call center. We invite you to watch a
short workforce management video so you can see yourself how the solution might help you reduce costs in your contact center.
Of all the factors involved in operating a successful, cost-efficient
call center, staffing may be the most significant. Out of every dollar
spent in call center costs, about 75 cents is related to labor. That
makes these decisions pivotal to the operation of the business.
different call centers have different priorities and different
functions, the challenge of staffing remains relatively consistent
regardless of size or specialty. These six steps can help a call center
manager successfully traverse the staffing minefield.
1. Gather and Analyze Data
most accurate and reliable guide to staffing, as anyone who studies
workforce management can tell you, is to look back at past performance
and call center history. Review the reports generated by the automatic
call distributor for data on average handle time, number of incoming
calls and other key performance indicators.
To create a staffing
schedule for, say, the first week of April, the obvious place to start
is with the data for the first week of April of the previous year, and
the year before if that information is available. The more historical
data used, the better the chance of an accurate forecast. Variations
should also be considered – where does Easter fall this year? Will that
impact call volume? Will more students be on spring break?
consulting previous weeks/months/years of information, the two numbers
that will most strongly impact forecasts are call volume and average
handle time, either calculated per hour or per half-hour.
2. Crunch the Numbers for a Workload Calculation
There are three methods typically employed by call centers to translate historical data into a staffing forecast:
this system the call center relies on a basic apples-to-apples
comparison of a future point in time with that same point in the past.
For example, forecasting next June 15 based on traffic numbers from June
15 of last year. While this is a good starting point, it will not be
precise as it does not account for more recent calling trends or new
products or promotions.
With this method a manager
would average relevant past numbers to predict call volume, preferably
while relying more heavily on recent data (by creating a formula that
uses these numbers more prominently). However, this may still not take
into account some changes or events that would have figured into older
Time Series Analysis
With time series analysis,
historical data is calculated alongside monthly or seasonal changes, as
well as more recent events and other variables. It is a more
comprehensive approach that typically results in better forecasts.
3. Staffing Calculations
#1 and #2 are used to create the forecast. Now it’s time to formulate a
schedule. The call volume forecast numbers are factored into workload
predictions, workload being the number derived from multiplying the
amount of forecasted calls and the average call handle time.
managers will add additional staff to whatever number of agents is
deemed appropriate, both to compensate for unexpected absences and to
maintain customer service levels should call volume be higher than
anticipated. The unproductive hours designated as “shrinkage” – breaks,
training time, tardiness, meetings – must also be considered. At most
call centers, shrinkage rates fall somewhere between 20% and 35%,
depending on the size of the business. In general, larger call centers
can absorb these variables more easily because of a more favorable
Another factor is how busy each agent
will be during a shift, referred to as agent occupancy. The goal is to
achieve an optimum balance between not sitting around for extended
periods of time between calls, and not having a long queue of calls
waiting that might result in rushing a customer call, to the detriment
of that engagement. As a percentage, 85-90% is considered an acceptable
4. Create Assignments
staff schedule is all about getting the right number of the right people
in position to handle the customer service needs of the call center.
Once the calculations from the previous step have been completed, the
manager should know how many agents would be needed for the shift in
As some call centers operate with full-time agents and
others use part-time and telecommuting employees, this is when shift
lengths and resources must be defined, days off specified and personnel
scheduled. Depending on the size of the call center, there may be
dozens, if not hundreds, of scheduling possibilities. If skill-based
routing is also a priority, this will also affect staffing decisions.
Once personnel have been selected, the manager also has the option of
staggering start times by 15 or 30 minutes, which can reduce instances
of too many agents taking lunch breaks or other diversions at the same
time during a shift.
5. Management and Adjustment
is no way to know if a plan is going to work until it is executed. Even
with the preparations and calculations already described, staff
schedules will likely still have to be adjusted every day. This ongoing
management of staff and schedule is referred to as performance tracking.
The main components of performance tracking are call volume,
AHT and staffing levels. Deviations from forecasting predictions may
require staffing adjustments, assuming enough flexibility has been built
into the schedule to make the necessary changes. If not, call center
service goals may be in jeopardy. Tracking the number of a calls in
queue may also require some “instant forecasting” to adjust the
remainder of the shift accordingly. However, over-reaction should also
be avoided, lest a random surge be mistaken for a full-day trend.
6. Review, Analyze, and Adjust
end of a shift is the beginning of preparation for the next one. The
challenge of staffing is ongoing, but each day’s results deliver data to
analyze that may result in ways to improve performance, both for each
individual agent and the entire team.
of the most persistent challenges of staffing can be mitigated when call
center managers know what to look for, when they have the information
they need, when they need it, and when they can act upon it quickly.
No one every said predicting the future was easy. But an effective, automated workforce management solution
can make the necessary calculations, remove much of the guesswork and
improve the accuracy of schedules and forecasts. Through real-time
measurement of call center metrics, agents and managers gain the data
visibility necessary to deliver the service that customers expect, and
can react more quickly to issues and resolve them before they impact
Creating a roster is the last of three staffing decisions that impact workforce optimization.
It’s a process that begins with the forecast, an estimate of the number
of calls that will be received, and the number of agents necessary to
handle these calls in an efficient manner. Staffing follows the
forecast, as management decides how many agents are needed for a given
day or shift, and which skill sets should be represented in that shift.
Scheduling is the process of matching shift profiles with forecasts to
achieve service goals.
Once this data has been obtained it is time to focus on the roster,
which matches employee availability to existing schedules or forecast
data. Rosters will be determined by input data measuring:
Find a workforce management software solution that includes rostering
capabilities and templates. This will expedite data entry, analysis,
roster creation, roster distribution and last-minute updates. Rosters
should not only track available agents, but those who are unavailable
due to vacations or other factors. To learn more about this, please
watch this short video about call center staffing roster creation and updating.
- work handling units (skill teams)
- arrival patterns
- allowable shifts (shift profiles), and
- employee availability.
important consideration is managing resources as they relate to
non-call activities, such as emails. A non-call roster can help with
scheduling available agents with the right skills at non-peak hours to
handle these important tasks.
Finally, rosters, like schedules,
are not set in stone. Unexpected changes necessitate swapping agents,
and increasing or decreasing the size of a shift based on outside
circumstances. Workforce management software should allow for unlimited
roster changes, so managers always have the flexibility they need to
correctly allocate resources.
Shift swapping is an inevitable occurrence at every call center, and is
one of the more significant agent staffing challenges that management
In general, allowing agents to swap shifts solves more problems than it
creates. With this arrangement, agents have more control over their
working hours, and that flexibility can encourage employee loyalty.
However, if this privilege is abused, it can lead to staffing confusion,
lower productivity, a shortage of agents for unpopular shifts, and
inconsistent customer service.
Agent Staffing Solutions
While shift swapping should be offered as an option, some center without
the right processes in place try to discourage this. They achieve this
by built-in incentives for agents to work the shifts to which they are
assigned, and by limiting swaps to, say, three a month or five in each
Call centers should have a reliable process in place that tracks shifts
and instances of shift swapping. This will not only make the process
easier for agents and management, it provides managers with insight into
which agents may be abusing this privilege, and how working different
shifts impacts an agent’s job performance.
While some last-minute shift swaps are unavoidable, as emergencies do
happen, a center should require that agents request swaps at least three
or five days in advance. That way, managers can adjust schedules
accordingly so productivity is not impacted. For example, if an agent
who is particularly adept at handling customer complaints swaps shifts
with an agent who is not as qualified in this situation, the call center
may wish to bring in another agent from a different shift with that
The ultimate objective is to satisfy the needs of the center and the
needs of the employees, and to make any staffing changes as convenient
The Role of Workforce Management Software
Shift swaps are yet another function that should be handled through a
workforce management solution - through a simple self-service tool that
includes shift bidding. An effective system will allow agents to search
for shifts to swap, and instantly know if there is a conflict with their
arrangement. Supervisors will then have the ability to approve or
reject the swap request, and find out if there are any issues with
weekly minimum or maximum restrictions on work hours should the swap be
approved. To learn more about agent shift swapping and supervisor collaboration, please follow this link to our main website.
With effective workforce management, the system that allows shift swaps
should be efficient, transparent and controlled by management with the
limitations necessary to maintain service standards.
Granted, you can do basic forecasting and scheduling with a spreadsheet. So, where is the real value of a workforce management solution then? Based on customer feedback, you can achieve improved staffing accuracy; get more visibility into call center operations and schedule adherence throughout the day, faster react to fluctuations in call volumes and better handle exceptions.
- More accurate forecasting: Starting with an accurate forecast and optimized schedule will more likely achieve the targeted service level (avoid under-staffing) at the lowest possible cost (avoid over-staffing). WFM solutions allows you to easily run different scenarios, forecast special days, and include call history more effectively to achieve high accuracy.
- Better manage call and non-call activities: One of the top challenges of many call centers is how to forecast and schedule non-call activities. WFM solutions make non-call activities part of the forecasting and scheduling process.
- Schedule flexibility for higher productivity: With a WFM solution call centers are able to implement a more flexible schedule to address center needs (fluctuating call volumes) and agents needs (flexible start/end time, time off), resulting in higher center productivity.
- Improved schedule adherence resulting in reduced shrinkage: With real-time adherence and adherence reports you can more effectively work with agents on reducing shrinkage. You can better educate agents about impact of adherence and set measurable goals. You can share adherence reports with agents, discuss causes for out-of-adherence and discover ways for improvement as a team effort. In addition, you are able to provide incentives to motivate adherence behavior.
Regardless of size, all call centers have the same basic goals of controlling costs, optimizing call center staffing, and meeting services levels. A common myth is that only larger centers need (and can afford) call center staffing software. But small call centers do have some unique challenges when contrasted with larger centers that make the case for staffing software:
- Unpredictable call volume: Since calling patterns tend to be far more diverse and marked by peaks and valleys in small centers, call center staffing can be a headache for many managers. They have to respond to spikes in volume on-the-fly, often without much historical data to back-up their decisions.
- Schedule adherence: Whereas larger centers can often manage schedule deviations and absenteeism without as much strain, smaller center performance suffers when 1 or a few agents are not available for calls. For instance, in a call center of fifty agents, occupancy is critical. If five agents take breaks or go to lunch at the same time, occupancy decreases by 10% and service levels go with it.
- Agent retention: Retention is one of the key factors of any size call center, but it’s especially significant when call center staffing revolves around a limited group. One of the many reasons agents leave is because staffing seems random and does not consider their personal needs. Agent morale increases when everyone understands and accepts schedules in advance, which reduces turnover and lets everyone know what’s expected of them.
While these are only a few of the many issues faced by small call centers, they show that you don’t have to be a large center to need call center staffing software. When you consider the cost to benefit ratio, most call center managers choose call center staffing software, especially now that it’s offered in the cloud (or SaaS). Now, you can be small and operate big.